ABSTRACT_Core 2 Considerable evidence suggests a role for diverse antibody (Ab) activities, including Fc receptor (FcR)- mediated functions in viral load reduction and in blocking HIV-1 acquisition. Although the role of FcR-effector function in antiviral activity holds across multiple model systems and Abs, mechanistic insights are complicated by species-specific solutions to balancing potent Ab effector activity with damaging inflammation, distinct epitope-, effector-, and Ab-specific factors, as well as distinctions between the effector mechanisms available in blood and tissue. Despite evolutionary proximity, significant differences between Rhesus macaque (RM) and human Ab biology that manifest in different functional characteristics of the Ab isotypes and subclasses, FcRs expressed on innate immune cells, and their biological interplay. This program will expand this map of how antiviral activity against HIV-1 is accomplished by diverse effector mechanisms, involving engagement of different soluble factors and effector cell populations, and distinctive immunoglobulin types in immune-complexes that vary in their overall architecture and biological activity, in both humans and RM. There is a continuing need to define this biology in humans and animal models in order to effectively translate insights gained from emerging protective and therapeutic studies to the clinic, and fuel impactful Ab immunoprophylaxis, cure strategies, and vaccine designs. The Structure-Function Analytics Core will support Projects 1, 2, and 3 and play a key role in achieving Program Goals by providing unifying structural, biophysical, biochemical, and data analysis of the Ab features and Fv and Fc interactions that underpin potent antiviral activities. Aim 1. Define the biophysical basis of potent antiviral Ab activity. Aim 2: Define the structural basis of potent antiviral Ab activity. Aim 3. Model the knowledge of immune cells and Ab features to define optimal antiviral activities.
|Effective start/end date||1/05/21 → 31/07/23|
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: $764,896.00
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: $734,396.00
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