A Phase II Clinical Trial of TRC105 (Anti-Endoglin Antibody) in Adults With Advanced/Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

Andrea B. Apolo*, Fatima H. Karzai, Jane B. Trepel, Sylvia Alarcon, Sunmin Lee, Min Jung Lee, Yusuke Tomita, Liang Cao, Yunkai Yu, Maria J. Merino, Ravi A. Madan, Howard L. Parnes, Seth M. Steinberg, Beatriz Walter Rodriguez, Ben K. Seon, James L. Gulley, Philip M. Arlen, Nancy A. Dawson, William D. Figg, William L. Dahut

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


TRC105 is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD105 (endoglin). Heavily pretreated patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma received TRC105 at 15 mg/m2 every 2 weeks on a 28-day cycle. Treatment was not associated with significant toxicities, but did not improve 6-month progression-free survival. Exploratory analyses suggest interplay between immunosuppressive subsets and TRC105, which warrants further study. Background In this trial we assessed the efficacy and tolerability of TRC105, a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD105 (endoglin) in patients with advanced, previously treated urothelial carcinoma (UC). Patients and Methods Patients received TRC105 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. Secondary end points included safety, toxicity, and overall survival (OS). CD105 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a separate cohort of 50 UC patients. Biomarker studies included immune subsets, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs), and osteopontin. Results Of 13 patients enrolled, 12 were evaluable for OS and PFS. The 3-month PFS probability was 18.2% (median PFS, 1.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.1 months). This met the criterion for ending accrual on the basis of the 2-stage design. Median OS was 8.3 months (95% CI, 3.3-17.0 months). IHC for CD105 scores was not associated with T stage (P = .26) or presence of lymph nodes (P = .64). Baseline levels of regulatory T and B cells, CEPs, and changes in CEC level after TRC105 exhibited trends toward an association with PFS or OS. CTCs pre- and post-TRC105 were detected in 4 of 4 patients. Conclusion Although TRC105 was well tolerated, it did not improve 6-month PFS in heavily pretreated patients with advanced UC. CD105 staining was present in 50% of UC tumors at different intensities. Our observations on the pharmacodynamic significance of immune subsets, CECs, and CTCs warrant further study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-85
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Genitourinary Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Advanced urothelial cancer
  • Antiangiogenic therapy
  • CD105
  • Immune subsets
  • Metastatic urothelial cancer
  • Urothelial cancer


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