A retrospective study of the time to clinical endpoints for advanced prostate cancer

Nima Sharifi, William L. Dahut, Seth M. Steinberg, William D. Figg, Christopher Tarassoff, Philip Arlen, James L. Gulle*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To determine the natural history of patients with prostate cancer who start initial androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for biochemical failure with no radiographic evidence of disease (D0) or with radiographic metastatic disease (D2), as the history is either not well-defined or is changing, and such data are critical for guiding therapy after prostate cancer recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the time to androgen-independence (AI), defined as the first sustained rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level on ADT, time to metastatic disease and overall survival for 80 patients with metastatic prostate cancer in clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute. RESULTS: ADT was initiated after metastatic disease in 37 patients and before metastatic disease in 43 patients; in these 43 patients, the median time to developing metastatic disease on ADT was 37.8 months. The median time to AI from the initiation of ADT was 19.3 and 13.1 months in D0 and D2 patients, respectively. The median overall survival from the start of ADT was 89.0 and 63.0 months, and the median overall survival from the time of AI was 63.1 and 44.2 months in D0 and D2 patients, respectively. These 80 patients, which included 43 who had no metastatic disease when starting ADT, had a median survival of 54.8 months after AI prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the natural history of AI prostate cancer in D0 patients who eventually developed metastasis, and in D2 patients. The results suggest a longer than expected survival with AI prostate cancer, and to our knowledge this is the first study to report the time to metastatic disease for D0 patients from ADT and from AI. These results can be used to help design clinical trials in patients with D0 prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)985-989
Number of pages5
JournalBJU International
Issue number7
StatePublished - Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Natural history
  • PSA
  • Prostatic neoplasms
  • Retrospective study
  • Survival analysis


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