A Scoping Review of Unintended Pregnancy in Active Duty United States Military Women

Candy Wilson, Angela Kornegay Phillips, Stacey E Iobst, Evan R Myers, Lori Trego, Rhonda J Allard, Ryan Landoll

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this scoping review was to apply the Social Ecological Model for Military Women's Health to literature on unintended pregnancy (UIP) to answer the question: In United States active duty military women (population) with the potential for UIP (context), what is known about risk factors, prevention, and pregnancy outcomes (concepts)?

METHODS: We conducted this review based on a PRISMA-ScR protocol registered a priori in Open Science Framework. Following a literature search of six databases and the grey literature, we used DistillerSR to manage data screening and data charting. The Social Ecological Model for Military Women's Health served as the theoretical framework to chart findings regarding UIP at the individual, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem levels.

RESULTS: A total of 74 research, review, and grey literature articles met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors included specific demographics, military service, and recent deployment. Prevention included contraceptive practices, access, and education that should take place early in servicewomen's careers and before deployment. Outcomes included early return from deployment, personal career challenges, and seeking alternative health services outside the military health system.

CONCLUSIONS: Research and policy initiatives should focus on decreasing risk factors in the military working environment, with particular attention to the deployed environment. These initiatives should include input from military leaders, health care providers, servicewomen, and servicemen with the goal of decreasing the incidence of unintended pregnancies. Pregnancy intentionality among military women should be considered as a concept to shape intervention research to reduce unintended pregnancies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S66-S80
JournalWomen's Health Issues
Volume31 Suppl 1
StatePublished - 25 Aug 2021


  • Contraceptive Agents
  • Female
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Military Personnel
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, Unplanned
  • United States
  • Workplace


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