Caspase-11, a cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, mediates lethal immune responses and coagulopathy in sepsis, a leading cause of death worldwide with limited therapeutic options. We previously showed that over-activation of caspase-11 is driven by hepatocyte-released high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which delivers extracellular LPS into the cytosol of host cells during sepsis. Using a phenotypic screening strategy with recombinant HMGB1 and peritoneal macrophages, we discovered that FeTPPS, a small molecule selectively inhibits HMGB1-mediated caspase-11 activation. The physical interaction between FeTPPS and HMGB1 disrupts the HMGB1-LPS binding and decreases the capacity of HMGB1 to induce lysosomal rupture, leading to the diminished cytosolic delivery of LPS. Treatment of FeTPPS significantly attenuates HMGB1- and caspase-11-mediated immune responses, organ damage, and lethality in endotoxemia and bacterial sepsis. These findings shed light on the development of HMGB1-targeting therapeutics for lethal immune disorders and might open a new avenue to treat sepsis.