Introduction While Campylobacter jejuni is a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen worldwide, it poses a particular risk to susceptible populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A capsule-conjugate vaccine approach has been proposed as a potential solution, but little information exists on circulating C. jejuni capsule types in LMICs. The capsule is the major serodeterminant of the Penner typing scheme, which is based on serum recognition of Campylobacter heat-stable antigens. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the distribution of Penner serotypes associated with C. jejuni enteritis in LMICs. Vaccine coverage assessments for hypothetical regional and global C. jejuni vaccines were also estimated. Methods A systematic review of the literature published from 1980 to 2019 was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Articles were assessed for eligibility and data were abstracted. Pooled C. jejuni serotype prevalence in LMICs was estimated by region and globally using random-effects models. Results A total of 36 studies were included, capturing 4,434 isolates from LMICs. Fifteen serotypes were present in a sufficient number of studies to be included in analyses. Among these, HS4c was the most common serotype globally (12.6%), though leading capsule types varied among regions. HS2, HS3c, HS4c, HS5/31, HS8/17, and HS10 were all among the 10 most common region-specific serotypes. Conclusions The results of this review suggest that an octavalent vaccine could provide up to 66.9% coverage of typable strains worldwide, and 56.8–69.0% regionally. This review also highlights the paucity of available data on capsules in LMICs; more testing is needed to inform vaccine development efforts.