Activation-induced deaminase cloning, localization, and protein extraction from young VH-mutant rabbit appendix

Guibin Yang, Harold Obiakor, Rajesh K. Sinha, Barbara A. Newman, Brian L. Hood, Thomas P. Conrads, Timothy D. Veenstra, Rose G. Mage*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Studies in mouse, human, and chicken suggest that activation-induced deaminase (AID) is involved in three known processes leading to antibody diversification: somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class-switch recombination. Developing rabbit appendix provides a particularly good site for studying all three of these B cell maturation events. We report here successful cloning of rabbit AID and isolation of AID protein from rabbit appendix-cell nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. We succeeded in identifying and locating AID protein in cells by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining techniques and examined colocalization of AID and other molecules important for Ab diversification. This report extends our knowledge about AID to a mammalian species that uses gene conversion to diversify rearranged Ig genes. Although much work remains to understand fully the mechanism of action of AID and its association with other cellular components, the rabbit system now offers a particularly useful model for future studies of these dynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17083-17088
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number47
StatePublished - 22 Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Gene conversion
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Somatic hypermutation


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