Background: Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) studies evaluate strategies to potentially induce remission in people living with HIV-1 but are often limited in sample size. We combined data from four studies that tested three interventions (vorinostat/hydroxychloroquine/maraviroc before ATI, Ad26/MVA vaccination before ATI, and VRC01 antibody infusion during ATI). Methods: The statistical validity of combining data from these participants was evaluated. Eleven variables, including HIV-1 viral load at diagnosis, Fiebig stage, and CD4+ T cell count were evaluated using pairwise correlations, statistical tests, and Cox survival models. Findings: Participants had homogeneous demographic and clinical characteristics. Because an antiviral effect was seen in participants who received VRC01 infusion post-ATI, these participants were excluded from the analysis, permitting a pooled analysis of 53 participants. Time to viral rebound was significantly associated with variables measured at the beginning of infection: pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) viral load (HR = 1.34, p = 0.022), time to viral suppression post-ART initiation (HR = 1.07, p < 0.001), and area under the viral load curve (HR = 1.34, p = 0.026). Conclusions: We show that higher viral loads in acute HIV-1 infection were associated with faster viral rebound, demonstrating that the initial stage of HIV-1 infection before ART initiation has a strong impact on viral rebound post-ATI years later. Funding: This work was supported by a cooperative agreement between the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine and the US Department of the Army (W81XWH-18-2-0040). This research was funded, in part, by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (AAI20052001) and the I4C Martin Delaney Collaboratory (5UM1AI126603-05).
- HIV-1 acute infection
- HIV-1 cure
- Translation to patients
- analytic treatment interruption
- correlates of HIV-1 rebound