Adenovirus-associated acute respiratory disease (AARD) is well documented in the U.S. military, but little information is readily available on its occurrence in other healthy populations that might also benefit from adenovirus vaccines. We reviewed publications on AARD in non-U.S. military, immunocompetent, young adults in group-living settings. Since adenovirus disease can be severe in immunocompromised and pediatric patients, we also considered AARD in health care workers. We evaluated 83 publications, published between 1950 and 2005, concerning 22 countries. Most described outbreaks in foreign military recruits and were published before 1970. More recent reports documented outbreaks in student dormitories and medical facilities. The 83 reports did not provide evidence for AARD being a serious, persistent, contemporary concern in the populations studied, nor did they identify strong interest in adenovirus vaccines. Currently availability, sensitive, molecular diagnostic tests may better define the importance of AARD in populations outside the U.S. military.