ADHD in children: Common questions and answers

Jennifer G. Chang, Francesca M. Cimino, Weyinshet Gossa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multidimensional chronic neurodevelopmental condition that affects 8.4% of U.S. children between two and 17 years of age and may pose long-term morbidity if untreated. The evaluation for ADHD begins when parents or caregivers present to primary care physicians with concerns about behavior problems or poor school or social function. A comprehensive history and physical examination should assess for comorbid or other conditions that can mimic ADHD. The combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., criteria and validated screening tools completed by parents, teachers, or other adults can aid in establishing the diagnosis. The goals of treatment include symptom reduction and improved social and cognitive function. Psychosocial interventions are the recommended first-line treatment for preschool children (four to five years) and can improve overall function when used as an adjunct therapy in elementary school children (six to 11 years of age) and adolescents (12 to 17 years of age). Stimulant medications are well-established as an effective treatment for reducing symptoms of ADHD in elementary school children and adolescents. Nonstimulant medications are less effective but reasonable as adjunct or alternative therapy when stimulants are ineffective or not tolerated. Regular follow-up is key in the management of ADHD and should assess symptoms, overall function, presence of comorbidities, adverse effects of treatment, and medication use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)592-602
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Family Physician
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020


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