Adjustment Disorders in U.S. Active Duty Military Women: A Scoping Review for the Years 2000 to 2018

Jouhayna Bajjani-Gebara, Sherrie L Wilcox, John W Williams, Andrzej S Kosinski, Rhonda J Allard, Candy Wilson, Ryan Landoll

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Adjustment disorder (AD) is the most common mental health diagnosis in the U.S. military and is more than twice as likely to be diagnosed in active duty servicewomen as compared with male servicemembers. The literature on ADs, particularly in female servicemembers, has not been reviewed yet. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to explore the degree of research activity and summarize current literature gaps.

METHODS: We created a PRISMA-ScR checklist and prospectively registered it in Open Science Framework. The literature search included articles (including studies and reports) published between 2000 and 2018 in either the grey literature or the following databases: Ovid Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid Cochrane. We used DistillerSR to conduct title and abstracts screening, full-text screening, and data charting. The social ecological model for military women's health framework was used to organize the results.

RESULTS: After screening 1,304 records, 29 were included for data charting. Most frequently, studies were descriptive (cross-sectional) (25%), with no randomized controlled studies. The studies primarily focused on ADs' risk factors in servicewomen (76%), followed by military readiness (38%). Only 14% addressed recommendations for treatments based on expert opinion, although they did not directly test interventions, and 7% focused on health outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: ADs affect the health of U.S. military women and military readiness, yet little is known about their successful treatment or health outcomes. Additional research in those areas is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S33-S42
JournalWomen's Health Issues
Volume31 Suppl 1
StatePublished - 25 Aug 2021


  • Adjustment Disorders
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Military Personnel


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