Background: To assess how implant alignment affects unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) outcome, we compared tibial component alignment of well-functioning UKAs against 2 groups of failed UKAs, revised for progression of lateral compartment arthritis (“Progression”) and aseptic loosening (“Loosening”). Methods: We identified 37 revisions for Progression and 61 revisions for Loosening from our prospective institutional database of 3351 medial fixed-bearing UKAs performed since 2000. Revision cohorts were matched on age, gender, body mass index, and postoperative range of motion with “Successful” unrevised UKAs with minimum 10-year follow-up and Knee Society Score ≥70. Tibial component coronal (TCA) and sagittal (TSA) plane alignment was measured on postoperative radiographs. Limb alignment was quantified by hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle on long-leg radiographs. In addition to directly comparing groups, a multivariate logistic regression examined how limb and component alignments were associated with UKA revision. Results: In the Progression group, component alignment was similar to the matched successes (TCA 3.6° ± 3.5° varus vs 5.1° ± 3.5° varus, P = .07; TSA 8.4° ± 4.4° vs 8.8° ± 3.6°, P = .67), whereas HKA angle was significantly more valgus (0.3° ± 3.6° valgus vs 4.4° ± 2.6° varus, P < .001). Loosening group component alignment was also similar to the matched successes (TCA 6.1° ± 3.7° varus vs 5.9° ± 3.1° varus, P = .72; TSA 8.4° ± 4.6° vs 8.1° ± 3.9°, P = .68), and HKA was significantly more varus (6.1° ± 3.1° varus vs 4.0° ± 2.7° varus, P < .001). Using a multivariate logistic regression, HKA angle was the most significant factor associated with revision (P < .001). Conclusion: In this population of revised UKAs and long-term successes, limb alignment was a more important determinant of outcome than tibial component alignment. Level of Evidence: Level III case-control study.
- component alignment
- hip-knee-ankle angle
- mechanical alignment
- medial compartment aseptic loosening and subsidence
- revision for progression of lateral compartment osteoarthritis
- unicondylar knee arthroplasty