On June 17 to 18, 2019, the American Burn Association, in conjunction with Underwriters Laboratories, convened a group of experts on burn resuscitation in Washington, DC. The goal of the meeting was to identify and discuss novel research and strategies to optimize the process of burn resuscitation. Patients who sustain a large thermal injury (involving >20% of the total body surface area [TBSA]) face a sequence of challenges, beginning with burn shock. Over the last century, research has helped elucidate much of the underlying pathophysiology of burn shock, which places multiple organ systems at risk of damage or dysfunction. These studies advanced the understanding of the need for fluids for resuscitation. The resultant practice of judicious and timely infusion of crystalloids has improved mortality after major thermal injury. However, much remains unclear about how to further improve and customize resuscitation practice to limit the morbidities associated with edema and volume overload. Herein, we review the history and pathophysiology of shock following thermal injury, and propose some of the priorities for resuscitation research. Recommendations include: studying the utility of alternative endpoints to resuscitation, reexamining plasma as a primary or adjunctive resuscitation fluid, and applying information about inflammation and endotheliopathy to target the underlying causes of burn shock. Undoubtedly, these future research efforts will require a concerted effort from the burn and research communities.