An intervention study on screening for breast cancer among single African-American women aged 65 and older

Kangmin Zhu*, Sandra Hunter, Louis J. Bernard, Kathleen Payne-Wilks, Chanel L. Roland, Lloyd C. Elam, Ziding Feng, Robert S. Levine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Background. Older African-American women with single marital status are least likely to use screening procedures. This study aimed to evaluate a breast screening intervention program conducted in this population. Methods. Ten public housing complexes were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. African-American women aged 65 and over were recruited into the study if they were widowed, divorced, separated, or never married and did not have a history of breast cancer (n = 325). The intervention program was delivered by lay health educators at the participant's apartment and was designed to increase knowledge about breast screening, reduce psychological problems, and increase support from significant others. Breast-screening-related cognition and behavior were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 years postintervention. Results. Comparisons of the preintervention and postintervention measurements showed that while the proportion of women who had a clinical breast examination or mammogram in the preceding year was decreased at 1 year postintervention in the control group, it was increased in the intervention group. However, the differences did not reach a significant level. No consistent patterns could be found in changes of breast self-examination and variables in knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. When analyses were restricted to women whose significant others had provided information or help on breast screening, results were better, but the differences between the intervention and control groups still did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions. These results did not suggest significant effects of an intervention program that used lay health educators to promote breast cancer screening in older single African-American women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-545
Number of pages10
JournalPreventive Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • African-American
  • Breast cancer
  • Education
  • Elderly
  • Intervention
  • Mammography
  • Screening


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