Dysfunctions of androgen/TGF-β signaling play important roles in prostate tumorigenesis. Prostate Transmembrane Protein Androgen Induced 1 (PMEPA1) inhibits androgen and TGF-β signaling via a negative feedback loop. The loss of PMEPA1 confers resistance to androgen signaling inhibitors and promotes bone metastasis. Conflicting reports on the expression and biological functions of PMEPA1 in prostate and other cancers propelled us to investigate isoform specific functions in prostate cancer (PCa). One hundred and twenty laser capture micro-dissection matched normal prostate and prostate tumor tissues were analyzed for correlations between quantitative expression of PMEPA1 isoforms and clinical outcomes with Q-RT-PCR, and further validated with a The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq dataset of 499 PCa. Cell proliferation was assessed with cell counting, plating efficiency and soft agar assay in androgen responsive LNCaP and TGF-β responsive PC3 cells. TGF-β signaling was measured by SMAD dual-luciferase reporter assay. Higher PMEPA1-a mRNA levels indicated biochemical recurrence (p = 0.0183) and lower PMEPA1-b expression associated with metastasis (p = 0.0173). Further, lower PMEPA1-b and a higher ratio of PMEPA1-a vs.-b were correlated to higher Gleason scores and lower progression free survival rate (p < 0.01). TGF-β-responsive PMEPA1-a promoted PCa cell growth, and androgen-responsive PMEPA1-b inhibited cancer cell proliferation. PMEPA1 isoforms-a and-b were shown to be promising candidate biomarkers indicating PCa aggressiveness including earlier biochemical relapse and lower disease specific life expectancy via interrupting androgen/TGF-β signaling.
- (I)(I)Protein levels ofofAR and
- Biochemical recurrence
- Cells with PMEPA1-b over-expression (G) and PMEPA1-b depletion (H)
- Prostate cancer