Antifungal wound penetration of amphotericin and voriconazole in combat-related injuries: Case report

Kevin S. Akers*, Matthew P. Rowan, Krista L. Niece, John C. Graybill, Katrin Mende, Kevin K. Chung, Clinton K. Murray

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Background: Survivors of combat trauma can have long and challenging recoveries, which may be complicated by infection. Invasive fungal infections are a rare but serious complication with limited treatment options. Currently, aggressive surgical debridement is the standard of care, with antifungal agents used adjunctively with uncertain efficacy. Anecdotal evidence suggests that antifungal agents may be ineffective in the absence of surgical debridement, and studies have yet to correlate antifungal concentrations in plasma and wounds. Case presentation: Here we report the systemic pharmacokinetics and wound effluent antifungal concentrations of five wounds from two male patients, aged 28 and 30 years old who sustained combat-related blast injuries in southern Afghanistan, with proven or possible invasive fungal infection. Our data demonstrate that while voriconazole sufficiently penetrated the wound resulting in detectable effluent levels, free amphotericin B (unbound to plasma) was not present in wound effluent despite sufficient concentrations in circulating plasma. In addition, considerable between-patient and within-patient variability was observed in antifungal pharmacokinetic parameters. Conclusion: These data highlight the need for further studies evaluating wound penetration of commonly used antifungals and the role for therapeutic drug monitoring in providing optimal care for critically ill and injured war fighters.

Original languageEnglish
Article number184
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - 12 Dec 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Effluent
  • Invasive fungal infection
  • NPWT
  • Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy
  • Pharmacokinetics


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