Antiretroviral Therapy Anchor-based Trends in Body Mass Index following Treatment Initiation among Military Personnel with HIV

Maj David A. Kline, Colton Daniels, Xiaohe Xu, Thankam Sunil, Anuradha Ganesan, Brian K. Agan, Rhonda E. Colombo, Karl C. Kronmann, Jason M. Blaylock, Jason F. Okulicz, A. Elizabeth Markelz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Weight gain and obesity in people living with HIV have been associated with increased risk for non-AIDS-related comorbidities, and integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimens may lead to comparatively more weight gain than other regimens. We evaluated body mass index (BMI) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among participants in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS). Materials and Methods: NHS participants with available baseline weight and height data initiating ART from 2006 to 2017 were considered for analysis. Antiretroviral therapy was categorized by anchor class to include INSTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). Linear growth-curve modeling was used to predict BMI changes from ART initiation through 2 years of follow-up in participants stratified by baseline BMI (<25 vs ≥25 kg/m2) at ART start and anchor drug class. These models were adjusted for demographic- A nd HIV-related characteristics. Results: Of 961 NHS participants started on initial ART between 2006 and 2017, 491 men who had available baseline BMI data and were virally suppressed (<200 c/mL) at 1 and 2 years of follow-up were included. Overall, the predicted BMI increased at each time point over 2 years regardless of baseline BMI. There was a trend toward less weight gain for non-INSTI regimens regardless of demographic-or HIV-related factors (-0.65 kg/m2/yr, P =. 070). In participants with BMI <25, all regimens were associated with BMI gains except in those with high viral load (≥100,000 copies/mL) started on PI regimens (-1.91 kg/m2/yr, P =. 000; n = 13). For those participants with BMI ≥25, only INSTI- A nd PI-based regimens were significantly associated with increased BMI (INSTI 0.54 kg/m2/y, P =. 000; PI 0.39 kg/m2/yr, P =. 006). Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were not associated with weight gain regardless of race-or HIV-related characteristics. African Americans with BMI ≥25 were more likely to gain weight as compared to Whites (0.99 kg/m2/yr, P =. 016). Specific anchor drug-based predictions revealed that only INSTI use among African Americans was significantly associated with BMI gains (1.85 kg/m2/yr, P =. 007); NNRTI- A nd PI-related weight change was not significant as compared to Whites. Conclusions: In our cohort of young military members with HIV infection, those with BMI <25 experienced BMI gains across all ART classes. Among those with BMI ≥25, African Americans on INSTI regimens had the greatest BMI gains. Further studies are needed to determine whether NNRTI regimens should be considered in certain individuals at risk for INSTI-associated weight gain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-285
Number of pages7
JournalMilitary Medicine
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2021


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