Effective treatments for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer following disease progression on enzalutamide are currently an unmet clinical need. Simultaneous inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a and androgen receptor (AR) pathways has been previously shown to overcome enzalutamide resistance in vitro. Combination treatment with NLG207, a nanoparticle-drug conjugate of camptothecin and inhibitor of HIF-1a, and enzalutamide was evaluated in preclinical prostate cancer models of enzalutamide resistance. The effect of NLG207 and enzalutamide on average tumor volume and tumor re-growth after 3 weeks of treatment was evaluated in vivo using the subcutaneous 22Rv1 xenograft and castrated subcutaneous VCaP xenograft models. Correlative assessments of antitumor activity were evaluated in vitro using cell proliferation and qPCR assays. NLG207 8 mg/kg alone and in combination with enzalutamide reduced average tumor volume by 93% after 3 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05) in comparison with vehicle control in the subcutaneous 22Rv1 xenograft model. Notably, the addition of NLG207 also enhanced the efficacy of enzalutamide alone in the castrated subcutaneous VCaP xenograft model, decreasing the median rate of tumor growth by 51% (P ¼ 0.0001) in comparison with enzalutamide alone. In vitro assessments of cell proliferation and gene expression further demonstrated antitumor activity via AR-HIF-1a crosstalk inhibition. Combination treatment with NLG207 and enzalutamide was shown to be effective in preclinical prostate cancer models of enzalutamide resistance. Clinical investigation of this treatment combination is ongoing (NCT03531827).