Antivenom access impacts severity of Brazilian snakebite envenoming: A geographic information system analysis

Julia Elizabeth Isaacson, Jinny Jing Ye, Lincoln Luís Silva, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Luciano de Andrade, Joao Felipe Hermann Costa Scheidt, Fan Hui Wen, Jacqueline Sachett, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Catherine Ann Staton, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci*, Charles John Gerardo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background Snakebite envenoming (SBE) is a neglected tropical disease capable of causing both significant disability and death. The burden of SBE is especially high in low-and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to perform a geospatial analysis evaluating the association of sociodemographics and access to care indicators on moderate and severe cases of SBE in Brazil. Methods We conducted an ecological, cross-sectional study of SBE in Brazil from 2014 to 2019 using the open access National System Identification of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) database. We then collected a set of indicators from the Brazil Census of 2010 and performed a Principal Component Analysis to create variables related to health, economics, occupation, edu-cation, infrastructure, and access to care. Next, a descriptive and exploratory spatial analysis was conducted to evaluate the geospatial association of moderate and severe events. These variables related to events were evaluated using Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression. T-values were plotted in choropleth maps and considered statistically significant when values were <-1.96 or >+1.96. Results We found that the North region had the highest number of SBE cases by population (47.83/ 100,000), death rates (0.18/100,000), moderate and severe rates (22.96/100,000), and pro-portion of cases that took more than three hours to reach healthcare assistance (44.11%). The Northeast and Midwest had the next poorest indicators. Life expectancy, young population structure, inequality, electricity, occupation, and more than three hours to reach health-care were positively associated with greater cases of moderate and severe events, while income, illiteracy, sanitation, and access to care were negatively associated. The remaining indicators showed a positive association in some areas of the country and a negative association in other areas. Conclusion Regional disparities in SBE incidence and rates of poor outcomes exist in Brazil, with the North region disproportionately affected. Multiple indicators were associated with rates of moderate and severe events, such as sociodemographic and health care indicators. Any approach to improving snakebite care must work to ensure the timeliness of antivenom administration.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0011305
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Issue number6 June
StatePublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


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