Jonathan D. Stallings, Srinivas Laxminarayan, Chenggang Yu, Adam Kapela, Andrew Frock, Andrew P. Cap, Andrew T. Reisner, Jaques Reifman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Hemorrhage remains the leading cause of death on the battlefield. This study aims to assess the ability of an artificial intelligence triage algorithm to automatically analyze vital-sign data and stratify hemorrhage risk in trauma patients. Methods: Here, we developed the APPRAISE-Hemorrhage Risk Index (HRI) algorithm, which uses three routinely measured vital signs (heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures) to identify trauma patients at greatest risk of hemorrhage. The algorithm preprocesses the vital signs to discard unreliable data, analyzes reliable data using an artificial intelligence-based linear regression model, and stratifies hemorrhage risk into low (HRI:I), average (HRI:II), and high (HRI:III). Results: To train and test the algorithm, we used 540 h of continuous vital-sign data collected from 1,659 trauma patients in prehospital and hospital (i.e., emergency department) settings. We defined hemorrhage cases (n = 198) as those patients who received ≥1 unit of packed red blood cells within 24 h of hospital admission and had documented hemorrhagic injuries. The APPRAISE-HRI stratification yielded a hemorrhage likelihood ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.28 (0.13-0.43) for HRI:I, 1.00 (0.85-1.15) for HRI:II, and 5.75 (3.57-7.93) for HRI:III, suggesting that patients categorized in the low-risk (high-risk) category were at least 3-fold less (more) likely to have hemorrhage than those in the average trauma population. We obtained similar results in a cross-validation analysis. Conclusions: The APPRAISE-HRI algorithm provides a new capability to evaluate routine vital signs and alert medics to specific casualties who have the highest risk of hemorrhage, to optimize decision-making for triage, treatment, and evacuation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-205
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial intelligence
  • hemorrhage
  • trauma
  • triage algorithm


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