Background: Military service requires physical fitness, including vision within set standards. Premature attrition inflicts a considerable manpower and fiscal burden upon the military. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort survival analysis of newly enlisted military personnel who entered active duty with a medical waiver for myopia between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2001. Premature attrition rates, both medical and overall, were compared with those for a matched, fully qualified, comparison group. Results: New enlistees with a waiver for myopia had the same probability of remaining on active duty through the first 2 years of service as did fully qualified peers. Enlistees with a waiver for myopia also had a low probability of an early medical discharge for myopia. Conclusion: The results of this study tend to validate the current branch-specific myopia waiver processes. They also provide evidence that current myopia accession criteria may be too restrictive and in need of policy review.