Basic science of closed head injuries and spinal cord injuries

David O. Okonkwo*, James R. Stone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Traumatic CNS injury is one of the most important health issues in our society and is a risk to all athletes, both in competitive and recreational sports. Our understanding of the pathophysiology has improved tremendously in the last 20 years. This progress has led to the identification of several possible treatments for improving outcome following spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury. As no panacea exists, improvements in experimental models have empowered researchers in their search for novel therapeutic strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-481
Number of pages15
JournalClinics in Sports Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2003
Externally publishedYes


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