Biocompatibility and biodistribution of matrix-bound nanovesicles in vitro and in vivo

Raphael J. Crum, Héctor Capella-Monsonís, Jordan Chang, Marley J. Dewey, Brian D. Kolich, Kelsey T. Hall, Salma O. El-Mossier, David G. Nascari, George S. Hussey, Stephen F. Badylak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBV) are a distinct subtype of extracellular vesicles that are firmly embedded within biomaterials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM). MBV both store and transport a diverse, tissue specific portfolio of signaling molecules including proteins, miRNAs, and bioactive lipids. MBV function as a key mediator in ECM-mediated control of the local tissue microenvironment. One of the most important mechanisms by which MBV in ECM bioscaffolds support constructive tissue remodeling following injury is immunomodulation and, specifically, the promotion of an anti-inflammatory, pro-remodeling immune cell activation state. Recent in vivo studies have shown that isolated MBV have therapeutic efficacy in rodent models of both retinal damage and rheumatoid arthritis through the targeted immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory activation state. While these results show the therapeutic potential of MBV administered independent of the rest of the ECM, the in vitro and in vivo safety and biodistribution profile of MBV remain uncharacterized. The purpose of the present study was to thoroughly characterize the pre-clinical safety profile of MBV through a combination of in vitro cytotoxicity and MBV uptake studies and in vivo toxicity, immunotoxicity, and imaging studies. The results showed that MBV isolated from porcine urinary bladder are well-tolerated and are not cytotoxic in cell culture, are non-toxic to the whole organism, and are not immunosuppressive compared to the potent immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide. Furthermore, this safety profile was sustained across a wide range of MBV doses. Statement of significance: Matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBV) are a distinct subtype of bioactive extracellular vesicles that are embedded within biomaterials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent studies have shown therapeutic efficacy of MBV in models of both retinal damage and rheumatoid arthritis through the targeted immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory activation state. While these results show the therapeutic potential of MBV, the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and biodistribution profile of MBV remain uncharacterized. The results of the present study showed that MBV are a well-tolerated ECM-derived therapy that are not cytotoxic in cell culture, are non-toxic to the whole organism, and are not immunosuppressive. Collectively, these data highlight the translational feasibility of MBV therapeutics across a wide variety of clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-122
Number of pages10
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume155
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biodistribution
  • Cytocompatibility
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Matrix-bound nanovesicles

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