Reports of biofilms have increased exponentially in the scientific literature over the past two decades, yet the vast majority of these are basic science investigations with limited clinical relevance. Biofilm studies involving clinical isolates are most often surveys of isolate collections, but suffer from lack of standardization in methodologies for producing and assessing biofilms. In contrast, more informative clinical studies correlating biofilm formation to patient data have infrequently been reported. In this chapter, biofilm surveys of clinical isolates of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, mycobacteria, and Candida are reviewed, as well as those pertaining to the unique situation of cystic fibrosis. In addition, the infl uence of host components on in vitro biofilm formation, as well as published studies documenting the clinical impact of biofilms in human infections, are presented.