Infection in hard tissue regeneration is a clinically-relevant challenge. Development of scaffolds with dual function for promoting bone/dental tissue growth and preventing bacterial infections is a critical need in the field. Here we fabricated hybrid scaffolds by intrafibrillar-mineralization of collagen using a biomimetic process and subsequently coating the scaffold with an antimicrobial designer peptide with cationic and amphipathic properties. The highly hydrophilic mineralized collagen scaffolds provided an ideal substrate to form a dense and stable coating of the antimicrobial peptides. The amount of hydroxyapatite in the mineralized fibers modulated the rheological behavior of the scaffolds with no influence on the amount of recruited peptides and the resulting increase in hydrophobicity. The developed scaffolds were potent by contact killing of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Streptococcus gordonii as well as cytocompatible to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. The process of scaffold fabrication is versatile and can be used to control mineral load and/or intrafibrillar-mineralized scaffolds made of other biopolymers.
- Biomimetic mineralization
- Cationic and amphipathic peptides
- Hard tissue