Hansen's disease (HD) continues to have worldwide impact despite efforts to eradicate the disease. Although a definitive transmission mode has not been identified, data supports an association between HD and contact with the nine-banded armadillo. We conducted a case-control study of 28 HD patients to determine if there is an association between armadillo exposure and HD. There was no association between HD and place of birth or having hunted, consumed, or had direct or indirect contact with deer, birds, or squirrels. Univariate analysis showed that residence in Mexico (P = 0.001), hunting rabbits (P = 0.04), cleaning rabbits (P < 0.001), and armadillo exposure from hunting (P = 0.005), cleaning (P = 0.004), consuming (P = 0.002) them, or having direct armadillo contact (P = 0.017) were associated with HD. Multivariate analysis showed that eating armadillos (P = 0.039, odds ratio [OR] = 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-12.4), cleaning rabbits (P = 0.018, OR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.27-13.1), and having lived in Mexico (P = 0.006, OR = 24.9, 95% CI = 2.52-245) were associated with HD.