FADD/MORT1 (The adaptor protein of Fas Associate Death Domain/Mediator of Receptor Induced Toxicity) is essential for signal transduction of death receptor signaling. We have previously shown that FADD is significantly up-regulated in TNFα/ActD induced apoptosis. Over-expression of FADD also induces death of lung cancer cells and primary hepatocytes. We hypothesize that the increase in detectable FADD levels require the proximal steps in apoptotic signaling and speculated that FADD would be redistributed in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. We show that monomeric non-phosphorylated FADD is up-regulated in hepatocytes treated with TNFα/ActD and that it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Nuclear phosphorylated FADD decreases with TNFα/ActD treatment. Dimeric FADD in the cytoplasm remains constant with TNFα/ActD. The change in FADD levels and distribution was dependent on caspase-3, caspase-8 activity and the presence of BID. Thus, changes in FADD levels and distribution are downstream of caspase activation and mitochondria changes that are initiated by the formation of the DISC complex. Changes in FADD levels and distribution may represent a novel feed-forward mechanism to propagate apoptosis signaling in hepatocytes.
- Nuclear/cytoplasm translocation