Characterizing Brain Perfusion in a Swine Model of Raised Intracranial Pressure

Hossam Abdou, Joseph Edwards, Neerav Patel, David P. Stonko, Noha Elansary, Eric Lang, Michael J. Richmond, Thomas Ptak, Joseph M. White, Thomas M. Scalea, Jonathan J. Morrison*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: Perfusion of the brain is critical, but this can be compromised due to focal space occupying lesions (SOL). SOLs can raise intracranial pressure (ICP), resulting in reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Most gyrencephalic models of brain injury focus on parenchymal injury, with few models of acutely elevated ICP. We hypothesized that we could employ a SOL technique to develop a titratable ICP model and sought to quantitate the resulting decrease in brain perfusion. Methods: Six swine were anesthetized and instrumented. A Fogarty balloon catheter was inserted intracranially. Blood CO2 partial pressure was maintained between 35 and 45 mmHg. The Fogarty balloon was infused with normal saline at 1 mL/min to ICP targets of 10, 20, 30, and 40 mmHg. CBF (mL/100 g/min) were assessed at each ICP level using computed tomography perfusion (CTP). Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation with all pressures measured in mmHg. CBF values were compared between baseline and each ICP level using analysis of variance. Results: Baseline ICP was 5 ± 2 and systolic blood pressure was 106 ± 7. Balloon volumes (mL) required to achieve each incremental ICP level were 2.4 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 1.7, 7.6 ± 1.6, and 9.9 ± 1.7. CBF decreased with each raised ICP level, with CBF being significantly less than baseline at ICP values of 30 (56.1 ± 34.7 versus 20.6 ± 11.0, P < 0.05) and 40 (56.1 ± 34.7 versus 6.5 ± 10.6, P < 0.05). Conclusions: An intracranial balloon catheter can be used to increase ICP, delivering a proportionate reduction in CBF. This model can be used in the future studies to examine adjuncts that manipulate intracranial pressure and their effect on brain perfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-69
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain injury
  • Cerebral blood flow
  • Intracranial pressure
  • Perfusion
  • Space occupying lesion
  • Swine


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