Classification and grading of chronic venous disease in the lower limbs. A consensus statement

John J. Bergan, Bo Eklof, Robert L. Kistner, Gregory L. Moneta, Andrew N. Nicolaides*, Hugh G. Beebe, Mitchel P. Goldman, Lazar J. Greenfield, Robert W. Hobson, James O. Menzoian, Thomas F. O'Donnell, John M. Porter, Seshadri Raju, Norman M. Rich, Harry Schanzer, D. Eugene Strandness, David S. Sumner, David Bergqvist, Ingvar Eriksson, Claude JuhanMichel Perrin, Nicos Labropoulos, Philip Coleridge Smith, G. Mark Malouf, Kenneth A. Myers, Graeme Richardson, Peter Neglen, Hugo Partsch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Advances in modern technology have made available a large number of both invasive and non-invasive investigations that can provide information not only on the presence, absence or anatomic extent but also quantitation of the abnormalities. It was soon realised that the combinations of presence, absence, extent and severity of reflux and/or obstruction in the deep, superficial or perforating veins are so large that the classification of chronic venous disease would be a major challenge. This challenge has been taken up by the Consensus Committee which met in Maui on 22-26 February 1995. The Consensus that developed is in three parts. Part I deals with a classification system that covers the Clinical picture, the Etiology, the Anatomic distribution and the Pathophysiology (the CEAP Classification). Part II suggests a scoring system intended to be evaluated on patients classified according to the CEAP classification, and Part III provides guidelines on the use of various investigations which according to the current medical literature will aid in the classification, The Consensus Committee has retained the copyright of the document so that it can be made available for reproduction to all interested parties. Reproduction is free provided there is no alteration and it is always reproduced in its entirety, The development of this consensus document is a continuous process. Suggestions for improvement are expected from all involved in the study and management of patients with chronic venous disease. The classification has already been presented and debated at several national and international meetings and plans for an updated version are already in progress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-441
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1997


  • Chronic venous disease
  • Classification


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