Individuals with upper extremity (UE) amputation abandon prostheses due to challenges with significant device weight—particularly among myoelectric prostheses—and limited device dexterity, durability, and reliability among both myoelectric and body-powered prostheses. The Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL) system couples an advanced UE prosthesis with a pattern recognition paradigm for intuitive, non-invasive prosthetic control. Pattern recognition accuracy and functional assessment—Box & Blocks (BB), Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT), and Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC)—scores comprised the main outcomes. 10 participants were included in analyses, including seven individuals with traumatic amputation, two individuals with congenital limb absence, and one with amputation secondary to malignancy. The average (SD) time since limb loss, excluding congenital participants, was 85.9 (59.5) months. Participants controlled an average of eight motion classes compared to three with their conventional prostheses. All participants made continuous improvements in motion classifier accuracy, pathway completion efficiency, and MPL manipulation. BB and JHFT improvements were not statistically significant. ACMC performance improved for all participants, with mean (SD) scores of 162.6 (105.3), 213.4 (196.2), and 383.2 (154.3), p = 0.02 between the baseline, midpoint, and exit assessments, respectively. Feedback included lengthening the training period to further improve motion classifier accuracy and MPL control. The MPL has potential to restore functionality to individuals with acquired or congenital UE loss.