Closed-loop systems for drug delivery

Aaron M. Fields, Kevin M. Fields, Jeremy W. Cannon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss closed-loop systems, the engineering behind them, and the application of these systems. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature demonstrates that closed-loop systems can be used for controlling the depth of anesthesia, muscle relaxation, blood pressure, intravascular volume, and blood glucose levels. SUMMARY: The future anesthesiologist may devote less time to easily delegated tasks when in the operating room. The ability of computers to maintain variables in a set range allows some tasks to be automated. Although monitoring of these systems will never be completely eliminated, the necessity for minute-to-minute intervention may.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-451
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Closed-loop system
  • Fuzzy logic
  • Neural network
  • Target-controlled infusion


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