Comorbidities in Clinical and Polysomnographic Features of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Single Tertiary Care Center Experience

Hamdan Al-Jahdali*, Anwar E. Ahmed, Al Harbi Abdullah, Khan Ayaz, Almuttari Ahmed, ALGamedi L.G. Majed, Alyami Sami, Almuhayshir Amirah, Dahman Bassam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Research on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is inadequate in Saudi Arabia, particularly among patients with comorbidities. This study investigates comorbidities in patients with different severity of apnea based on the Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI). Methods: The retrospective charts review that included a cohort of 4391 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) between 2003 and 2019. The AHI is classified into four ordinal groups: normal, mild, moderate, and severe. Ordinal logistic regression was used to model proportional odds of a higher AHI category. Results: Gender was distributed equally in the study sample. The average age was 49.6 ± 14.8 years and the average AHI was 16.1 ± 22 per hour. Hypertension (43.2%) and diabetes mellitus (37.3%) were the most common comorbidities: Mild OSA 28.9%, Moderate OSA 15.6%, and severe 16.4%. The severity of apnea increased with age and BMI classes. The prevalence of hypertension increased with the severity of apnea: 42.9% in mild, 47.4% in moderate, and 54.6% in severe AHI. The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and diabetes mellitus (DM) increased with the severity of apnea. Comorbidities was more among OSA patients with excessive sleepiness. After adjustment for age and gender, greater proportional odds of severe AHI were observed in males (aOR = 1.8), 30–59 years (aOR = 2.064), 60 years or above (aOR = 2.873), obese class II (aOR = 2.016), obese class III (aOR = 2.527), and in patients with hypertension (aOR = 1.272). Conclusion: Hypertension and obesity were highly prevalent in the study cohort and were associated with greater proportional odds of severe AHI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-495
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Comorbidities
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Saudi


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