Background: Major improvements have been made in the development of novel dressings with hemostatic properties to control heavy bleeding in noncompressible areas. To test the relative efficacy of different formulations in bleeding control, recently manufactured products need to be compared using a severe injury model. Methods: Ten hemostatic dressings and the standard gauze bandage were tested in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs hemorrhaged by full transection of the femoral vasculature at the level of the groin. Application of these dressings with a 5-minute compression period (at ∼200 mm Hg) was followed with a subsequent infusion of colloid for a period of 30 minutes. Primary outcomes were survival and amount and incidence of bleeding after dressing application. Vital signs and wound temperature were continuously recorded throughout the 3-hour experimental observation. Results: These findings indicated that four dressings were effective in improving bleeding control and superior to the standard gauze bandage. This also correlated with increased survival rates. Absorbent property, flexibility, and the hemostatic agent itself were identified as the critical factors in controlling bleeding on a noncompressible transected vascular and tissue injury. Conclusions: Celox, QuikClot ACS+, WoundStat, and X-Sponge ranked superior in terms of low incidence of rebleeding, volume of blood loss, maintenance of mean arterial pressure >40 mm Hg, and survival.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care|
|State||Published - Oct 2009|
- Noncompressible wound
- Uncontrolled hemorrhage