Background: The kinetic chain theory is widely used as a rationale for the inclusion of core stability training in athletes. Core stability (muscle capacity and neuromuscular control) impairments may result in less than optimal performance and abnormal force dissipation to the shoulder complex that could lead to shoulder injuries. However, a paucity of literature exists to support this relationship, and no previous studies have investigated the relationship between isolated core neuromuscular control and shoulder injuries. Additionally, lower extremity postural stability has been associated with athletic function and may also be associated with shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical measures of isolated core neuromuscular control and lower extremity postural stability between athletes with and without non-traumatic shoulder injuries. Methods: Eighty athletes (55 males, age: 21.2 ± 3.3 years, 40 with a current shoulder injury) completed biomechanical measures of isolated core neuromuscular control and lower extremity postural stability. Athletes were matched by age, gender, body mass index, and sport type. MANOVAs were used to assess differences between measures of core neuromuscular control and lower extremity postural stability between groups. Findings: There were no statistically significant differences between athletes with and without shoulder injuries for the static core neuromuscular control measures, F(4,75) = 0.45, P = 0.78, η2 = 0.02; dynamic core neuromuscular control measures, F(4,75) = 0.81, P = 0.52, η2 = 0.04; or lower extremity postural stability measures, F(8,61) = 0.85, P = 0.56, η2 = 0.10. Interpretation: Although core stability is widely incorporated in rehabilitation of athletes with shoulder injuries, athletes with current non-traumatic shoulder injuries may not present with impairments in core neuromuscular control or lower extremity postural stability.