Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based scaffold materials have been used successfully in both preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. Results of numerous studies have shown that ECM scaffolds are capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of multiple cell types in vitro and of acting as inductive templates for constructive tissue remodeling after implantation in vivo. Adipose tissue represents a potentially abundant source of ECM and may represent an ideal substrate for the growth and adipogenic differentiation of stem cells harvested from this tissue. Numerous studies have shown that the methods by which ECM scaffold materials are prepared have a dramatic effect upon both the biochemical and structural properties of the resultant ECM scaffold material as well as the ability of the material to support a positive tissue remodeling outcome after implantation. The objective of the present study was to characterize the adipose ECM material resulting from three methods of decellularization to determine the most effective method for the derivation of an adipose tissue ECM scaffold that was largely free of potentially immunogenic cellular content while retaining tissue-specific structural and functional components as well as the ability to support the growth and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. The results show that each of the decellularization methods produced an adipose ECM scaffold that was distinct from both a structural and biochemical perspective, emphasizing the importance of the decellularization protocol used to produce adipose ECM scaffolds. Further, the results suggest that the adipose ECM scaffolds produced using the methods described herein are capable of supporting the maintenance and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells and may represent effective substrates for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to soft tissue reconstruction.