Concussion Risk and Recovery in Athletes With Psychostimulant-Treated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings From the NCAA-DOD CARE Consortium

Colt A. Coffman, Brett S. Gunn, Paul F. Pasquina, Michael A. McCrea, Thomas W. McAllister, Steven P. Broglio, Robert D. Moore, Matthew B. Pontifex*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) –related psychostimulant use in the context of concussion risk and symptom recovery. Data were obtained from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Department of Defense Grand Alliance Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (NCAA-DOD CARE) Consortium from 2014 to 2017. Relative to individuals without diagnosed ADHD (i.e., control), both ADHD diagnosis and the combination of ADHD diagnosis and psychostimulant use were associated with a greater risk of incurring a concussive injury. Following a concussive injury, ADHD diagnosis was associated with longer symptom recovery time relative to the control group. However, individuals with ADHD who use psychostimulants did not take longer to resolve symptoms than controls, suggesting that psychostimulants may have a positive influence on recovery. Regardless of time point, ADHD diagnosis was associated with an elevated number of concussion-related symptoms; however, this effect appears mitigated by having used ADHD-related psychostimulants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)337-346
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Volume45
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ADHD medication
  • SCAT symptoms
  • asymptomatic
  • return to play
  • sport-related injury

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