Prior immune responses to coronaviruses might affect human SARS-CoV-2 response. We screened 2,565 serum and plasma samples collected from 2013 through early 2020, before the COVID-19 pandemic began, from 2,250 persons in 4 countries in Africa (Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) and in Thailand, including persons living with HIV-1. We detected IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) subunit 2 protein in 1.8% of participants. Profiling against 23 coronavirus antigens revealed that responses to S, subunit 2, or subunit 1 proteins were significantly more frequent than responses to the receptor-binding domain, S-Trimer, or nucleocapsid proteins (p<0.0001). We observed similar responses in persons with or without HIV-1. Among all coronavirus antigens tested, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody responses were much higher in participants from Africa than in participants from Thailand (p<0.01). We noted less pronounced differences for endemic coronaviruses. Serosurveys could affect vaccine and monoclonal antibody distribution across global populations.