Criteria for Advanced Prosthetic Foot Prescription: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Multisite, Randomized Controlled Trial

Jason T. Maikos*, Brad D. Hendershot, Alison L. Pruziner, Michael J. Hyre, John M. Chomack, Samuel L. Phillips, Jeffrey T. Heckman, Alexis N. Sidiropoulos, Christopher L. Dearth, Leif M. Nelson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: The prescription of prosthetic ankle-foot devices is often based on the professional judgment of the limb loss care team or limited evidentiary research. Current prosthetic research efforts have focused on the design and development of prosthetic devices rather than on understanding which devices are the most appropriate to prescribe. This investigation will evaluate biomechanical, functional, and subjective outcome measures to help determine the optimal prescription parameters of prosthetic ankle-foot devices. Objective: This study aims to develop evidence-based guidelines for limb loss care teams for the appropriate prescription of commercially available prosthetic ankle-foot devices to improve function and satisfaction. Methods: This investigation will be a multisite, randomized, crossover clinical trial targeting the enrollment of 100 participants. Participants will use 3 different types of prosthetic devices (energy storing and returning, articulating, and powered) in random order. Participants will be fitted and trained with each device and then separately use each device for a 1-week acclimation period. Following each 1-week acclimation period, participants will be evaluated using several functional measures and subjective surveys. A random subset of participants (30/100, 30%) will also undergo full-body gait analysis, following each 1-week acclimation period, to collect biomechanical data during level ground and incline and decline walking. After all individual device evaluations, participants will be given all 3 prostheses concurrently for 4 weeks of home and community use to capture user preference. Activity monitoring and a guided interview will be used to determine overall user preference. Results: The study was funded in August 2017, and data collection began in 2018. Data collection is expected to be completed before July 2023. Initial dissemination of results is expected to occur in the winter of 2023. Conclusions: By identifying biomechanical, functional, and subjective outcomes that are sensitive to differences in prosthetic ankle-foot devices, a benchmark of evidence can be developed to guide effective prosthetic prescription.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere45612
JournalJMIR Research Protocols
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • amputation
  • limb loss
  • lower extremity
  • prosthetic ankle-foot devices
  • prosthetic prescription


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