Crossing the bridge: Large animal models in translational transplantation research

Allan D. Kirk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

129 Scopus citations


Many methods for reducing the immunosuppressive requirements of allotransplantation have been proposed based on a growing understanding of physiological and allospecific immunity. As these regimens are developed for clinical application, they require validation in models that are reasonably predictive of their performance in humans. This article provides an overview of the large animal models commonly used to test immunomodulatory organ transplant protocols. The rationale for the use of large animals and the effects of common immunosuppressants in the dog, pig, and non-human primate are reviewed. Promising methods for the induction of allospecific tolerance are surveyed with references to early human trials where appropriate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)176-196
Number of pages21
JournalImmunological Reviews
StatePublished - Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Crossing the bridge: Large animal models in translational transplantation research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this