Interleukin 33 (IL-33), an inflammatory and mechanically responsive cytokine, is an important component of a TLR4-dependent innate immune process in mucosal epithelium. Although TLR4 also plays a role in sensing biomechanical stretch, a pathway of stretch-induced TLR4-dependent IL-33 biosynthesis has not been revealed. In the current study, we show that short term (6 h) cyclic stretch (CS) of cultured murine respiratory epithelial cells (MLE-12) increased intracellular IL-33 expression in a TLR4 dependent fashion. There was no detectable IL-33 in conditioned media in this interval. CS, however, increased release of the notable alarmin, HMGB1, and a neutralizing antibody (2G7) to HMGB1 completely abolished the CS mediated increase in IL-33. rHMGB1 increased IL-33 synthesis and this was partially abrogated by silencing TLR4 suggesting additional receptors for HMGB1 are involved in its regulation of IL-33. Collectively, these data reveal a HMGB1/ TLR4/IL-33 pathway in the response of respiratory epithelium to mechanical stretch.