Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are commonly observed comorbid occurrences among military service members and veterans (SMVs). In this cross-sectional study, SMVs with a history of TBI were stratified into symptomatic and asymptomatic PTSD groups based on posttraumatic stress checklist-civilian (PCL-C) total scores. Blood-based biomarkers were assessed, and significant differential markers were associated with scores from multiple neurobehavioral self-report assessments. PCL-C cutoffs were total scores >50 (PTSD symptomatic) and <25 (asymptomatic). Cytokines IL6, IL8, TNFα, and IL10 were significantly elevated (p < 0.05–0.001) in the TBI+/PTSD symptomatic group compared to the TBI+/asymptomatic group. Cytokine levels of IL8, TNFα, and IL10 were strongly associated with PCL-C scores (0.356 < r > 0.624 for all, p < 0.01 for all), while TNFα and IL10 were additionally associated with NSI totals (r = 0.285 and r = 0.270, p < 0.05, respectively). This is the first study focused on PTSD symptom severity to report levels of circulating pro-inflammatory IL8, specifically in SMVs with TBI. These data suggest that within the military TBI population, there are unique cytokine profiles that relate to neurobehavioral outcomes associated with TBI and PTSD.