Decellularized allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue as a bioscaffold for regenerative medicine: Factors that influence the host response

Stephen F. Badylak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

244 Scopus citations

Abstract

Biologic scaffold materials composed of mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) are prepared by decellularization of source tissues harvested from either humans (allogeneic) or a variety of other (xenogeneic) species. These matrix scaffold materials are commonly regulated and used as surgical mesh materials for applications such as ventral hernia repair, musculotendinous tissue reconstruction, dura mater replacement, reconstructive breast surgery, pelvic floor reconstruction, and the treatment of cutaneous ulcers, among others. The clinical results for these applications vary widely for reasons which include characteristics of the source tissue, methods and efficacy of tissue decellularization, and methods of processing/manufacturing. However, the primary determinant of success or failure in the clinical setting is the response of the host to these implanted biologic scaffold materials. It is logical to question why any non-self biologic material, particularly a xenogeneic material, would not elicit an early and aggressive adverse immune response. The present manuscript briefly describes the known mechanisms by which these biologic scaffold materials can facilitate a constructive remodeling response, the known causative factors of an adverse response, and provides a general discussion of the role of the macrophage in determining outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1517-1527
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Volume42
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2014
Externally publishedYes

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