BACKGROUND. Gastric carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying its development and progression still remain largely uncharacterized. As loss of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) expression leads to neoplastic growth in the antropyloric mucosa of mice, the authors sought to comprehensively study the human TFF1 gene in primary gastric carcinomas. METHODS. The authors studied the human TFF1 gene in primary gastric carcinomas and normal gastric mucosa at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels through DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Strikingly, TFF1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in all 37 gastric carcinomas studied compared with normal gastric mucosa. Furthermore, six tumor/normal pairs with available histologic samples demonstrated a marked decrease in protein expression in tumor samples. Screening of the entire TFF1 coding region in a panel of 42 human gastric tumors did not reveal any somatic mutations, although a few rare germline sequence variants were identified. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrated a significant decrease in the TFF1 transcript in the majority of human gastric carcinomas along with a corresponding reduction in protein expression, both of which occurred in the absence of gene mutation. Dysregulation of TFF1 expression at the transcript level was a critical event in the development of most gastric carcinomas.
- DNA sequence
- Gastric carcinoma
- Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
- Trefoil factor 1