An excessive and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response is associated with organ failure, immunodepression, and increased susceptibility to nosocomial infection following trauma. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a particularly prominent role in the host immune response after trauma with hemorrhage. However, as a result of its pleiotropic functions, the effect of IL-6 in trauma and hemorrhage is still controversial. It remains unclear whether suppression of IL-6 after hemorrhagic shock and trauma will attenuate organ injury and immunosuppression. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were treated with anti-mouse IL-6 monoclonal antibody immediately prior to resuscitation in an experimental model combining hemorrhagic shock and lower-extremity injury. Interleukin 6 levels and signaling were transiently suppressed following administrations of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody following hemorrhagic shock and lower-extremity injury. This resulted in reduced lung and liver injury, as well as suppression in the levels of key inflammatory mediators including IL-10, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inhibitory protein 1α at both 6 and 24 h. Furthermore, the shift to TH2 cytokine production and suppressed lymphocyte response were partly prevented. These results demonstrate that IL-6 is not only a biomarker but also an important driver of injury-induced inflammation and immune suppression in mice. Rapid measurement of IL-6 levels in the early phase of postinjury care could be used to guide IL-6-based interventions.