Dengue virus type 1 DNA vaccine induces protective immune responses in rhesus macaques

Kanakatte Raviprakash*, Kevin R. Porter, Tadeuscz J. Kochel, Daniel Ewing, Monica Simmons, Irving Phillips, Gerald S. Murphy, Walter R. Weiss, Curtis G. Hayes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations


A candidate DNA vaccine expressing dengue virus type 1 pre-membrane and envelope proteins was used to immunize rhesus macaques. Monkeys were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) or intradermally (i.d.) by three or four 1 mg doses of vaccine, respectively. Monkeys that were inoculated i.m. seroconverted more quickly and had higher antibody levels than those that were inoculated i.d. The sera exhibited virus-neutralizing activity, which declined over time. Four of the eight i.m.-inoculated monkeys were protected completely from developing viraemia when challenged 4 months after the last dose with homologous dengue virus. The other four monkeys had reduced viraemia compared with the control immunized monkeys. The i.d.-inoculated monkeys showed no reduction in viraemia when challenged with the virus. All vaccinated monkeys showed an anamnestic antibody response, indicating that they had established immunological memory. Vaccine-induced antibody had an avidity index similar to that of antibody induced by virus infection; however, no clear correlation was apparent between antibody avidity and virus neutralization titres.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1659-1667
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of General Virology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


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