Developing questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No. 87

Anthony R. Artino*, Jeffrey S. La Rochelle, Kent J. Dezee, Hunter Gehlbach

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

708 Scopus citations


In this AMEE Guide, we consider the design and development of self-administered surveys, commonly called questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely employed in medical education research. Unfortunately, the processes used to develop such questionnaires vary in quality and lack consistent, rigorous standards. Consequently, the quality of the questionnaires used in medical education research is highly variable. To address this problem, this AMEE Guide presents a systematic, seven-step process for designing high-quality questionnaires, with particular emphasis on developing survey scales. These seven steps do not address all aspects of survey design, nor do they represent the only way to develop a high-quality questionnaire. Instead, these steps synthesize multiple survey design techniques and organize them into a cohesive process for questionnaire developers of all levels. Addressing each of these steps systematically will improve the probabilities that survey designers will accurately measure what they intend to measure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-474
Number of pages12
JournalMedical Teacher
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes


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