Background: Studies have reported sex differences in outcomes following implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy–defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation. However, little is known about sex differences with regard to mode of death or device efficacy following ICD or CRT-D implantation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sex influenced mode of death or device efficacy in ICD and CRT-D subjects enrolled in the MADIT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial) studies (MADIT-II, MADIT-CRT, and MADIT-RIT). Methods: The combined MADIT cohort consisted of 3038 men and 1000 women with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%; New York Heart Association functional class I–III heart failure who received ICD or CRT-D. Mode of death was divided into cardiac and noncardiac causes, reviewed by independent adjudication committees. Results: A total of 295 men and 66 women died (9.7% vs 6.6%; P =.003) during 26 months. The most common cause of death was nonarrhythmic cardiac death in men (n = 121 [41%]) and noncardiac death in women (n = 22 [33%]). All-cause mortality and cardiac deaths were 1.5- to 2.0-fold higher in men vs women with ICM but similar for those with NICM after adjustment for covariates. ICD efficacy was similar in men and women, resulting in a 50% reduction in all-cause mortality. CRT-D was more effective at reducing all-cause and cardiac death in women than men. Conclusion: Mode of death differs between sex and is dependent on the underlying cardiac substrate. Compared to women, cardiac death is higher in men with ICM but similar in those with NICM. ICDs are equally effective at reducing mortality in both men and women. However, CRT-D may be more effective at reducing mortality in women.
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy
- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- MADIT trials
- Mode of death
- Sex differences