Distant metastasis from a carcinoid tumor of the appendix less than one centimeter in size

Dougald C. MacGillivray*, Robert B. Heaton, Jeanne M. Rushin, David F. Cruess

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


The presentation and management, of a patient with liver metastasis from a 0.6 cm carcinoid tumor of the appendix is presented. This is the first documented case of distant metastasis from a carcinoid of the appendix less than 1 cm in size. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies support the appendiceal carcinoid as being the primary neoplasm. Invasion of the mesoappendix was the only finding to suggest potentially aggressive behavior. We reviewed the literature and found 414 previously reported cases that provided complete information regarding tumor size, mesoappendiceal invasion, and presence of metastasis. For the entire group the frequency of metastasis was related to tumor size greater than 2 cm (p < 0.0001) and invasion of the mesoappendix (p < 0.0001). After dividing the group based on size, mesoappendiceal invasion was related to metastasis in those tumors less than 2 cm in size (p < 0.0001) but not in tumors larger than 2 cm (p = 0.1538).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-471
Number of pages6
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1992
Externally publishedYes


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