Background:Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent a major complication following oncologic reconstructions. Our objectives were (1) to assess whether the use of postoperative drains and/or negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) were associated with SSIs following lower-extremity oncologic reconstruction and (2) to identify factors associated with the duration of postoperative drains and with the duration of NPWT.Methods:This is a secondary analysis of the Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery (PARITY) trial, a multi-institution randomized controlled trial of lower-extremity oncologic reconstructions. Data were recorded regarding the use of drains alone, NPWT alone, or both NPWT and drains, including the total duration of each postoperatively. We analyzed postoperative drain duration and associations with tourniquet use, intraoperative thromboprophylaxis or antifibrinolytic use, incision length, resection length, and total operative time, through use of a linear regression model. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the independent predictors of SSI.Results:Overall, 604 patients were included and the incidence of SSI was 15.9%. Postoperative drains alone were used in 409 patients (67.7%), NPWT alone was used in 15 patients (2.5%), and both postoperative drains and NPWT were used in 68 patients (11.3%). The median (and interquartile range [IQR]) duration of drains and of NPWT was 3 days (IQR, 2 to 5 days) and 6 days (IQR, 4 to 8 days), respectively. The use of postoperative drains alone, NPWT alone, or both drains and NPWT was not associated with SSI (p = 0.14). Increased postoperative drain duration was associated with longer operative times and no intraoperative tourniquet use, as shown on linear regression analysis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). A postoperative drain duration of ≥14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 9.6; p = 0.01) and an operative time of ≥8 hours (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 11.9; p = 0.002) were independent predictors of SSI following lower-extremity oncologic reconstruction.Conclusions:A postoperative drain duration of ≥14 days and an operative time of ≥8 hours were independent predictors of SSI following lower-extremity oncologic reconstruction. Neither the use of postoperative drains nor the use of NPWT was a predictor of SSI. Future research is required to delineate the association of the combined use of postoperative drains and NPWT with SSI.Level of Evidence:Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.