Early dynamic orchestration of immunologic mediators identifies multiply injured patients who are tolerant or sensitive to hemorrhage

Todd O. McKinley*, Greg E. Gaski, Ruben Zamora, Li Shen, Qing Sun, Rami A. Namas, Timothy R. Billiar, Yoram Vodovotz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Multiply injured patients (MIPs) are at risk of complications including infections, and acute and prolonged organ dysfunction. The immunologic response to injury has been shown to affect outcomes. Recent advances in computational capabilities have shown that early dynamic coordination of the immunologic response is associated with improved outcomes after trauma. We hypothesized that patients who were sensitive or tolerant of hemorrhage would demonstrate differences in dynamic immunologic orchestration within hours of injury. METHODS: We identified two groups of MIPs who demonstrated distinct clinical tolerance to hemorrhage (n = 10) or distinct clinical sensitivity to hemorrhage (n = 9) from a consecutive cohort of 100 MIPs. Hemorrhage was quantified by integrating elevated shock index values for 24 hours after injury (shock volume). Clinical outcomes were quantified by average Marshall Organ Dysfunction Scores from days 2 to 5 after injury. Shock-sensitive patients had high cumulative organ dysfunction after lower magnitude hemorrhage. Shock-tolerant (ST) patients had low cumulative organ dysfunction after higher magnitude hemorrhage. Computational methods were used to analyze a panel of 20 immunologic mediators collected serially over the initial 72 hours after injury. RESULTS: Dynamic network analysis demonstrated the ST patients had increased orchestration of cytokines that are reparative and protective including interleukins 9, 17E/25, 21, 22, 23, and 33 during the initial 0- to 8-hour and 8- to 24-hour intervals after injury. Shock-sensitive patients had delayed immunologic orchestration of a network of largely proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Elastic net linear regression demonstrated that a group of five mediators could discriminate between shock-sensitive and ST patients. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that early immunologic orchestration discriminates between patients who are notably tolerant or sensitive to hemorrhage. Early orchestration of a group of reparative/protective mediators was amplified in shock-tolerant patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-450
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • dynamic network analysis
  • immunologic response
  • trauma sensitivity
  • trauma tolerance


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